Despite the growing interest on European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) missions in the last 10 years (along with the growth in the number of the missions), the issue of the evaluation has not been central in the debate. The aim of this article is to understand if and how the evaluation of the ESDP has been conceptualised and carried out through an overview of existing literature. Special attention is dedicated to the objects of the evaluation, such as missions? mandates, implementation and impact. Moreover, the attention is focused on the limits of the ESDP evaluation that have been identified and to the reasons that lie behind the relative underdevelopment of systematic evaluation approaches. The consulted literature on ESDP missions? evaluation is primarily focused on the Balkans and on Africa, even if texts focusing on other geographical contexts are also considered (i.e. Afghanistan, the Middle East).